Ltspice Ground



From there on you can proceed by changing values or settings to explore the course circuits! IE1206. 012" for this is usually good. Solar pv developers uk • install backup generator • solar water heater installation • repair roof • install backup generator • solar water heater installation • repair. For testing, Carol had the bright idea to insert her earphones in the ground line and then the tone could be heard. Here are links for a PDF version and the same paper as a Word file. Engineer shares how to build an electric vehicle from the ground up: Lead-acid vs Lithium-ion batteries. There are no loops of inductors or voltage sources. I'm going to be covering how to use a MOSFET since it's a better option for high power loads. LTspice Tutorial: Part 1. The typical resistor is ¼ W and if asked to dissipate 8. Going from Schematic to Breadboard. Ground fault pickup controls the amount of ground fault current that will cause the breaker to interrupt the circuit. 2012 Text alignment rotate 2h 02. Go to File>New Schematic , or click on New Schematic icon which looks like this. I don't actually know what to call the resulting 'object' Maybe a block, a model, custom subcircuit, custom part -- I'm not sure. You can customize your map display to show just the information you want to see at the best scale for your chosen purpose. To get the library containing the required “0/Source”, do the following: 1. A whole dried spice has the longest shelf life, so it can be purchased and stored in larger amounts, making it cheaper on a per-serving basis. An easier way to do this is to use a virtual ground circuit, such as the TLE2426 virtual ground (the "Rail Splitter") from Texas Instruments. Since Long−Term Stability cannot be measured on each device before shipment, this specification is an engineering estimate of average stability from lot to lot. Because it doesn't drop any voltage across a load, as what would happen when it is connected to a load, a voltage source's open circuit voltage represents its full voltage value, since the voltage doesn't share any of its voltage with a load. edu is a platform for academics to share research papers. com Designed and Reviewed by Factory Apps Group 2. This is especially true of large spreadsheets that contain rows and columns of very similar data. This document is a collection of information and circuits for powering electret microphone capsules. EE 3305 Lab I Revised July 18, 2003 of this amplifier follows the same logic as the non-inverting amplifier. Notes for ORCAD PSpice ECE 65, Spring 2006 Kristi Tsukida Starting a Project: 1. The ratio of Stop Time: Maximum Timestep determines how many calculations LTspice must make to plot a wave form. ICs and a Ground Strap that is to be worn when handling these ESD devices. , a “ground” node, even if a real-life implementation of your circuit would not require a separate reference node or return path. LTspice IV Presentation. PartSim is a free and easy to use circuit simulator that includes a full SPICE simulation engine, web-based schematic capture tool, a graphical waveform viewer and Digi-Key that runs in your web browser. Place these. This LTspice tutorial will explain how to modify the circuit and apply some different signals to it. In LTspice lines cross without connecting (show no dot) but are considered connected when there is a dot. 2 Why Use LTspice? Using the toolbar, select a Resistor, Capacitor and Ground. When LTSPICE will establish connection between subcircuit and the part drawing, Pinname1 in subcircuit header will correspond to pin number 1 in the part drawing, Pinname2 will correspond to pin number 2 and etc. What I want is for the source to act normally until the connected. Now connect the elements using the Place Wire command from the menu (PLACE/WIRE) or by clicking on the Place Wire icon. The first step is to draw the circuit diagram. We will use a Spice directive to add a K-Statement (“K Lp Ls 1 “) to this circuit. It's like saying the tube has shorted itself to ground, so we have a short circuit where between B+ and GND, the only resistor we have is the plate resistor of 10kohm. Click on and add “K Lp Ls 1 “. Grounded sources are defined as separately derived systems. 19 apk from Panda Helper for free. MATLAB is the easiest and most productive software environment for engineers and scientists. LTspice/SwitcherCAD III is a complete and fully functional SPICE program (electronic circuit simulator) that is available free of charge from the Linear Technology Corporation (LTC). Perfect Conductor and Perfect Dielectric (notes) Simulation Example. Go to File>New Schematic , or click on New Schematic icon which looks like this. N002 (relative to the ground node) is displayed in the information bar at the bottom of the window. Proteus Design Suite is found in High Schools, Colleges and Universities across the world, teaching electronics, embedded design and PCB layout to tens of thousands of students each year. This calculator finds both odd and even transmission line impedance. The NTC type is very popular as temperature sensor, the PTC type is often used as over-current protection. Device Information(1) PART NUMBER PACKAGE BODY SIZE (NOM) LM386N-1 PDIP (8) 9. Enter a name (ie Ece65_Kristi_Lab1) 4. Parallel Line Inductance. This LTspice tutorial will explain how to modify the circuit and apply some different signals to it. To simulate an op amp in LTSpice, begin by opening the component library, searching for “UniversalOpamp2” and clicking ok. The first example of a power electronics circuit is a step-down (also called buck) converter with synchronous rectification. Features • Wide Single−Supply Range: 2. In its modern form the software constructs those equations using a graphical user interface (the jargon is a schematic capture tool). In contrast, a ground where noises are not induced is called "clean ground. There are no series capacitors or current sources. ECE 321 Lab 1: Further Adventures with LTSpice In this lab you will review LTSpice simulation of op amp and dependent source circuits and be introduced to some of the semiconductor devices you will be learning about in ECE 321. Voltage: Hover over a wire with the cursor. To determine the actual direction and polarity, the sign of the values also should be considered. The first step is to draw the circuit diagram. In the Place Ground dialog box, highlight (left click to select) CAPSYM under Libraries and highlight GND under the Symbol box. Simulation Model of Common-Mode Chokes for High-Power Applications A. Now connect the elements using the Place Wire command from the menu (PLACE/WIRE) or by clicking on the Place Wire icon. For example, if a thermocouple is connected to a plug-in card (designed for thermocouple inputs), and erratic readings are noticed, it may be the result of a ground loop or noise induced on the thermocouple wires. iMap is your window to a wealth of geographic information from throughout King County on such topics as real property, natural. Click on and add “K Lp Ls 1 “. Now let’s see how to plot the forward characteristics of a diode using LTSpice. LTspice® is a high performance SPICE simulation software, schematic capture and waveform viewer with enhancements and models for easing the simulation of analog circuits. You can also make a 5W mono amplifier out of it. Use two 1N4002 diodes. LTSpice requires a ground reference in all circuit schematics to function properly. LTSPICE is capable of outputting a net-list that corresponds to your schematic. Any values in mind can be substituted for the following parts in the circuit above if desired. Circuit simulation gives students a fast and fun practical learning tool. Please submit your requests for additions or changes to Undocumented LTspice on the "discussion" page (second tab above). Device Information(1) PART NUMBER PACKAGE BODY SIZE (NOM) LM386N-1 PDIP (8) 9. " the closest we can plan for is "chassis ground" \$\endgroup\$ – BrownKuma Oct 19 '18 at 21:41. using two ground points in circuit maker or another pSPICE tool i have different grounds for ac and dc at rectifier in design, how to put two different grounds in circuit maker?. The adjustment can be set from 20 to 70% of the maximum breaker rating. The screen that you will probably spend the. There are many buttons on the main menu for selection of basic circuit elements such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, wires, as well as a ground node (GND). It will be 8. The F2 key will give access to all the components in LTspice, frequently used parts like the resistor,capacitor, inductor and ground symbol can be selected from the top menu line. The only problem is that I need the 12V ground and the 3-7. Something I need to get used to again. Place the voltage source, wires, ground, and passive components into the schematic. Click the "Add Ground" button. Browse Cadence PSpice Model Library. 42 Comments One of the best for a casual user is the free offering from Linear Technology called LTSpice. * (All Files) in the navigator window. LTspice authored by Mike. Click Next to continue. MATLAB is the easiest and most productive software environment for engineers and scientists. After having completed the tutorial, you should be able to – draw circuits using the schematic editor in LTspice. Laurent, Quebec (514) 343-9010. Since the bottom layer is a continuous ground plane, every copper trace on the top has some capacitance to ground. A three-phase electric motor. needs a ground terminal as the reference node that has the node number or name 0 (zero). Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a widely used tool for buried target detection, classification and identification applications. 1 Introduction. There it is. With the 16 ohm speaker the current gain is about 110 mA and the gain is about 2500 (68 dB). 1 Three basic steps With LTspice IV, circuit simulation is easy as 1, 2, 3 (see. Table of capacitor symbols. LTspice has a "Show Change Log" screen that lists every change to the software and models since LTspice XVII was released. YOU MUST HAVE A GROUND. Hitting a total mental block with this, for some reason. Then (as usual), you'll need to adjust some settings in the options bar. LTspice/SwitcherCAD III is a complete and fully functional SPICE program (electronic circuit simulator) that is available free of charge from the Linear Technology Corporation (LTC). Using LTspice – a Short Intro with Examples LTspice, also called SwitcherCAD, is a powerful and easy to use schematic capture program and SPICE engine, which is a general-purpose circuit simulation program for nonlinear DC, nonlinear transient, and linear AC analysis. Electronics Design. LTspice authored by Mike. 3 Ω coaxial transmission line section is connected with the 140 Ω antenna. In each case we will want to observe voltages and/or currents as a function of time. Keep it up such a nice posting like this. Any values in mind can be substituted for the following parts in the circuit above if desired. In contrast, a ground where noises are not induced is called "clean ground. components inventory wire button switch resistor: I=V/R capacitor: C = Q/V, I = C dV/dt unpolarized polarized crystal, resonator inductor: V = L dI/dt diode: current from anode to cathode PN Schottky Zener LED transistor bipolar: collector, emitter, base current gain mosfet: source, drain, gate resistance battery, regulator op-amp: differential gain, negative feedback. 012" for this is usually good. This jumper will drain any high voltage to ground through the 50k to 100K plate resistor on the tube. In LTspice lines cross without connecting (show no dot) but are considered connected when there is a dot. As mentioned earlier, Arduino Nano has 14 digital I/O pins that can be used either as digital input or output. Use one of the 100’s demo circuit available on linear. There are four types of dependent sources, each denoted by a letter. Download PSpice Lite for free and get all the Cadence PSpice models. Figure 1 Don't forget the GND. Table of capacitor symbols. Read about 'LTspice IV Application Handbook - Preface & extracts' on element14. The switching frequency needs to be approx. ltspice shortcuts on a mac 11/5/2013 rev 3 a draw circle b bus termination g ground l draw line s add spice directive (right click for help me edit) t add text comment w draw box z h hide ltspice z l spice log z n new schematic z o open z q quit ltspice z s save z z undo ⇧ z z redo z m minimize ⌥ z m minimize all z w close ⌥ z w close all. 0 (ms) 1v v1 t v = c t vc t 100nf Ground wires Signal in and scope wires Output wire. Opening PSpice II. Any values in mind can be substituted for the following parts in the circuit above if desired. Go to File => New => Project… 3. You can specify the name of a node so an arbitrary one isn't generated by the netlister. In the obsence of grounded neutral, voltages of healthy would increase line to line voltage level, stressing the insulation connected to equipment. The ratio of Stop Time: Maximum Timestep determines how many calculations LTspice must make to plot a wave form. Navigating through Pspice: Basic Screen There are three windows that are opened. The quiescent power drain is only 24 mW when operating from a 6-V supply, making the LM386M-1 and LM386MX-1 ideal for battery operation. Hello, on LTSpice if I want to simulate two independent circuits, the program forces me to specify a ground for each. Introduction to LTSpice IV Opening LTSpice IV 1. Going from Schematic to Breadboard. LTSPICE IV is a computational electronic design software package that facilitates design and simulation of circuits before their costly fabrication. This looks like two inductors are in the circuit. The pins work with 5V voltage as maximum, i. Modeling. pdf), Text File (. Construct the circuit below. Browse Cadence PSpice Model Library. °c 2007 IEEE. CMOS is the combination of PMOS and NMOS. You can specify the name of a node so an arbitrary one isn't generated by the netlister. It is very cheap especially keeping in mind the fact that it contains several hundred components. com, the information source about the SPICE software, including SPICE models Last item posted: Electronics Circuit SPICE Simulations with LTspice: A Schematic Based Approach. Coax shield is not grounded at this end. Tutorial #1 Transistor Amp and Tutorial #2 Lowpass Filter. (The LTSpice simulation does not constitute a solution when submitting HW1. Please try again later. Simulating an op amp. Download PSpice Lite for free and get all the Cadence PSpice models. 0V or ground. Solving Circuits with Kirchoff Laws. The LTspice Tutorial below will take you through how to get started with LTspice ®, the free All circuits must have a ground. working home problems using LTspice. I first posted the high side driver but then I realized Its easier to make an example out of the low side driver that is referenced to the ground. 3 Ω coaxial transmission line section is connected with the 140 Ω antenna. A whole dried spice has the longest shelf life, so it can be purchased and stored in larger amounts, making it cheaper on a per-serving basis. LTspice doesn't show any subversion numbers as many software programs do, though the software "build date" could be treated as such. LTspice authored by Mike. All times are UTC [ DST]. PDF FILE - CLICK HERE FOR PRINTABLE WORKSHEET: The Operational Amplifier is probably the most versatile Integrated Circuit available. There are many buttons on the main menu for selection of basic circuit elements such as resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, wires, as well as a ground node (GND). Personal use of this material is permitted. (The LTSpice simulation does not constitute a solution when submitting HW1. LTspice always defaults the start time to zero seconds and going until it reaches the user defined final time. Welcome to AboutSpice. The other end of the pot becomes the input. Connect pin 6 to ground with a jumper wire (black). Click on and add “K Lp Ls 1 “. There are several ways to. Opening PSpice II. The F2 key will give access to all the components in LTspice, frequently used parts like the resistor,capacitor, inductor and ground symbol can be selected from the top menu line. But LTSpice wont let me use both. LTspice/SwitcherCAD III is a complete and fully functional SPICE program (electronic circuit simulator) that is available free of charge from the Linear Technology Corporation (LTC). 1 W will die in a puff of smoke. Electronics Design. I'm looking for some input/help on the following from all members experienced in converting old PA tube amps into guitar amps. sch schematics in LTSpice. 01uF capacitor between pins 5 and 1. There are no series capacitors or current sources. 68k Grid Stopper Resistors Directly to Coax. LTspice Guide. olb', which contains the 0 source. To simplify construction and maintenance of these computers, IBM invented a pluggable module with eight tubes;1 failed modules could be. What can I do? Add the tiny triangle from the menu bar to your schematic and connect it to your ground. From, Maestro Infotech, Best Web Design Company in Bangalore. Components can be selected in two ways. We need to tell LTSpice these are transformer. Add a component Add a resistor – Press “R” or click the resistor button to insert a resistor. 5 W stereo audio amplifier built with common transistors and medium power BD139/BD140 output stage. I don't actually know what to call the resulting 'object' Maybe a block, a model, custom subcircuit, custom part -- I'm not sure. AND gate in LTspice usage? If ground is the gate's common, then the grounded input is not at a logic false condition, but simply not part of the simulation. In case you would like to try I suggest to first try the pen and paper way and then check the results on the simulator. The metal to semiconductor contacts are usually made in mul-tiple identical holes because it is more difficult to fabricate contact holes of varying sizes and shapes. The switching frequency needs to be approx. LTspice is available free from Linear Technology. It will be 8. Circuit simulation gives students a fast and fun practical learning tool. "LTspice for Mac Basics" This feature is not available right now. In the Place Ground dialog box, highlight (left click to select) CAPSYM under Libraries and highlight GND under the Symbol box. Now, to have max current flowing through, the only way is the plate voltage is at zero volt. Cadence® PSpice technology offers more than 33,000 models covering various types of devices that are included in the PSpice Lite software. pdf), Text File (. With my new -earth grounded- scope, I need to be extra careful to avoid making shorts by clipping the ground leads to the appropriate spots. As an example, in this picture they have the AC line input with a different ground:. You can also make a 5W mono amplifier out of it. The F2 key will give access to all the components in LTspice, frequently used parts like the resistor,capacitor, inductor and ground symbol can be selected from the top menu line. olb library is configured from the \Capture\Library\PSpice\Source. Include LTspiceVin A schematic. Here is LTSpice and what Id like to know is how to make an analysis where I ramp up the voltage from 0-5V at the gate such that I can study the V and A at different points in the circuit: In iCircuit I have a setup like this:. on the same net). LTSpice–#GettingStartedVeryQuickly#–PartII## # Single’Supply’AC’Coupled’Inverting’OpAmp’Experimentation’ 1. UNIVERSITY OF CALIFORNIA AT BERKELEY College of Engineering Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences EE105 Lab Experiments HSPICE Tutorial. Keyboard shortcuts are an alternate way to invoke one or more commands in LTspice that would otherwise only be accessible by clicking through the menu or toolbar. Since the original circuit did not identify any node as a reference or ground node we are free to place the ground node anywhere in the LTspice IV schematic. There are no loops of inductors or voltage sources. Opening PSpice II. There are no series capacitors or current sources. Capacitor Symbols. Adding a ground to the voltage source cures this. Note: This circuit does not include a ground. You can view these shortcuts for the schematic editor by choosing: Hot Keys can be reprogrammed by selecting a command and then pressing. Classification of targets in same shape and different materials is a particularly difficult problem, especially for targets with similar electrical conductivity. Introduction to LTSpice IV Opening LTSpice IV 1. It’s calculated as: Z Q = √(75). Please submit your requests for additions or changes to Undocumented LTspice on the "discussion" page (second tab above). In compliance with NEC® 230-95 (A), no trip point setting exceeds 1200 amps. With the 16 ohm speaker the current gain is about 110 mA and the gain is about 2500 (68 dB). Keyboard shortcuts are an alternate way to invoke one or more commands in LTspice that would otherwise only be accessible by clicking through the menu or toolbar. What happened? Every SPICE circuit needs a dedicated ground. The adjustment can be set from 20 to 70% of the maximum breaker rating. The LTspice Tutorial below will take you through how to get started with LTspice ®, the free All circuits must have a ground. This transformer won’t work properly because LTSpice does not know this is a transformer. It is based on the general purpose boost converter, the LT3757 (LT3757 datasheet). We are laser-focused on giving you the best and most relevant information possible about RTCA/DO-160 design and test. iMap is your window to a wealth of geographic information from throughout King County on such topics as real property, natural. The LTspice tool is used to simulate the oscillation frequency, and we assumed the uniform 7. Circuit simulation gives students a fast and fun practical learning tool. Example 1: Find the three unknown currents and three unknown voltages in the circuit below: Note: The direction of a current and the polarity of a voltage source can be assumed arbitrarily. LAUNCH: iMap is an application that allows you to view King County spatial information (GIS data and images) in an interactive map display. In order to get correct simulation results we need to specify the correct initial voltage across the capacitor. Set the location. 2 and not through the ground plane. The output from the Driver is connected to the Gate of the MOSFET through a resistor R Gext. Construct an LTSPICE schematic placing the following three things in series 1 3V, 1kHz AC voltage source 1 1kOhm resistor 1 1 F capacitor. The switching frequency needs to be approx. A spice may be available in several forms: fresh, whole dried, or pre-ground dried. of Kansas Dept. What can I do? Add the tiny triangle from the menu bar to your schematic and connect it to your ground. Click the "Add Ground" button. Start LTspice and select New Schematic from the File Menu. There are examples of all four types of standard simulation and a selection of different plots. Vg is stepped to obtain a range of drain current, while Vdd is adjust at each step to hold Vd1 at a given value, for example, 2 V. [email protected] A dual potmeter allows you to connect both left and right channel on one potentiometer. All times are UTC [ DST]. Pulse and Exponential Waveforms in PSPICE In this tutorial, we will describe the use of the pulse and exponential waveforms as voltage sources in PSPICE. • Install LTspice on your own computer. asy2tex gnd symbol file you want to use (without the extension), e. Also adjust the Isolate setting which defines how much clearance the ground pour gives other signals, 0. - mpkopec/ltspice-lib. olb', which contains the 0 source. all the course simulation files. You can customize your map display to show just the information you want to see at the best scale for your chosen purpose. It is based on the general purpose boost converter, the LT3757 (LT3757 datasheet). simulations with ltspice a schematic based approach beginner book 1,alpe dhuez,plc programming using rslogix 500 ladder logic diagnostics troubleshooting,practical design construction and operation of food facilities food science and technology,advanced statistics demystified a self teaching guide,designing and tuning high performance fuel. Looking for a simple way to limit the current from a voltage source in LTSpice. Audio power amplifier circuit diagrams / circuit schematics. The measurement circuit is as in the following from LTspice. CAdj, when used, is connected between the adjustment pin and ground. Directory structure will be tha same as lib dir in LTSpice to allow simple updates. Using predicted values above, an LTspice-based study of the line damped oscillator is realized (Figure 6). Note that all these links are external and we cannot provide support on the circuits or offer any guarantees to their accuracy. In the Place Ground dialog box, highlight (left click to select) CAPSYM under Libraries and highlight GND under the Symbol box. The logic-low is constructed from a zero voltage component instead of simply being tied to the LTspice global circuit common node (ground). 3 Ω coaxial transmission line section is connected with the 140 Ω antenna. Providing a suitable testing ground LTspice enables you to model switching regulators and electrical circuits, as well as run testing simulations before actually building the electronic components. Figure 5: Place the ground terminal box; the ground terminal should have the name 0 6. Any values in mind can be substituted for the following parts in the circuit above if desired. needs a ground terminal as the reference node that has the node number or name 0 (zero). Navigating through Pspice: Basic Screen There are three windows that are opened. In principle it could be applied to any node in such a simple circuit; however the usual convention is to choose the -ve terminal of the voltage source (or any point directly connected to it, i. With the 8 ohm speaker the current drain is about 215 mA and the gain is about 1700 (64 dB). If these devices start to send or receive data at the same time a short circuit may occur when one device outputs to the bus a logic “1”, the supply voltage, while another is set at logic level “0” or ground, resulting in a short circuit condition and possibly damage to the devices as well as loss of data. Wow! I definitely won't want to run my tube like this. Use two 1N4002 diodes. This to the extent that new technology is generally avoided. The first example of a power electronics circuit is a step-down (also called buck) converter with synchronous rectification. To get the library containing the required “0/Source”, do the following: 1. 1 W will die in a puff of smoke. It may also be a faulty plug-in card. ’Starting’with’the’typical’dc. Directory structure will be tha same as lib dir in LTSpice to allow simple updates. The first step is to draw the circuit diagram. We are using LTSpice because 1. The overall objective of this lab is to increase your familiarity with LTSpice. The only problem is that I need the 12V ground and the 3-7. (You should create a new directory for your project since PSpice will generate a bunch of project files in this folder. The new part is a dependent source and is found in the component dialog. I N S T R U C T I O N S. Failing to switch the neutral can result in a "cheat path" for circulating ground current to flow through the neutral. Boost Converter Design Procedure Below is a worked example using the theory outlined above. dd, and ground voltage are carried by metal lines. The logic-low is constructed from a zero voltage component instead of simply being tied to the LTspice global circuit common node (ground). This is a common feature in power systems containing “neutral” wires, since grounding the neutral wire ensures the least possible voltage at any given time between any “hot” wire and earth ground. INTRODUCTION TO TRANSMISSION LINES PART II DR. There are two connections at each node. by Vcc of value Vp and its ground is connected to the common ground of V DD and is returned to the Source of the MOSFET. The pins work with 5V voltage as maximum, i. This is because of the LTspice gate component’s special behavior in removing the simulation of individual gate pins tied to the common node ground. Download PSpice Lite for free and get all the Cadence PSpice models. Our next meeting will be held at the Fair Oaks library on August 8 th at 7 PM and be devoted to amplifiers. I will demonstrate LTSpice simulating the. Providing a suitable testing ground. LTspice Guide. In compliance with NEC® 230-95 (A), no trip point setting exceeds 1200 amps. The default Ground symbol is defined in the sym. com, the information source about the SPICE software, including SPICE models Last item posted: Electronics Circuit SPICE Simulations with LTspice: A Schematic Based Approach. Introduction. So, now you have a list of “Top Ten Online Circuit Simulators”, but this isn’t a final one. 5V ground but it seems like it is grounded to 12V or in the opposite way :/ Now I want to ask you, is this even possible in LTSPice?. This book is all about Spice Circuit Simulations Using LTspice. Jay Wang - June 25, 2006 I found an article describing the via vs. I first posted the high side driver but then I realized Its easier to make an example out of the low side driver that is referenced to the ground. It doesn´t make a difference if I connect for ex. It’s like sharing ice–cream on a date with one spoon. Please submit your requests for additions or changes to Undocumented LTspice on the "discussion" page (second tab above). " the closest we can plan for is "chassis ground" \$\endgroup\$ - BrownKuma Oct 19 '18 at 21:41. To perform simulations, LTspice must have a node to which all the voltages are referenced, i. In fact, about the measurement of discharge current, the standard write: "coaxial current target used to measure the discharge current of ESD generators shall have an input impedance, measured between the inner electrode and ground, of no more than 2.